RUMEX CRISPUS tablet Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Here’s a plant that will grow readily in clay! The oxalate content of the leaves may result in GI symptoms or kidney damage. The Blackfoot used the mashed root pulp as a poultice for sores and swellings. Chem Cent J. The leaves were poulticed for ulcers, sore eyes, swellings, itching, and to relieve stinging nettle stings (Erichsen-Brown 1979). Lastly, the organization suggests that you look for a product that contains a seal of approval from a third-party organization that provides quality testing. These organizations include U.S. Pharmacopeia, ConsumerLab.com, and NSF International. Natural Medicines Database. Yellow dock leaves are harvested in spring and may be used in salads or other dishes though the taste is somewhat sour. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. doi:10.2147/POR.S97310, Schuppan D, Afdhal NH. Violas: Edible, With Medicinal Uses. 2008;3(9):746–748. 2008;371(9615):838–851. Due to a lack of research, little is known about the side effects of using yellow dock. National Institutes of Health. Many different kinds of “Dock” exist and though some have similar properties, identification of the proper material is important. Larger amounts have been given as a laxative and tonic, and for other indications, including cancer. Outsidepride Burdock Arctium Lappa Plant Seed - 1000 Seeds $6.49. Chinese have used Rumex as a laxative (Duke 1990). Due to its astringent properties, the plant has been used, generally unsuccessfully, in the treatment of venereal diseases and skin conditions. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with … Yellow dock herbs have been used for centuries, valued for their medicinal and nutritional qualities. Ships from and sold by Outsidepride. Joseph A, Samant H. Jaundice. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that you look for a Supplement Facts label on the product and evaluate the amount of active ingredients per serving. The label will also tell you about other added ingredients like fillers, binders, and flavorings. Despite being included in multi-ingredient preparations for use in cancer, research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of yellow dock for this indication. Yellow Dock. 99 ($7.25/Fl Oz) FREE Shipping Due to its astringent properties, the plant has been used, generally unsuccessfully, in the treatment of venereal diseases and skin conditions. This plant has medical uses in European herbal medicine as well. References This page wis last eeditit on 10 September 2013, at 00:10. Nutr Res Pract. R. acetosa, R. acetosella, R. abyssinicus, R. crispus, R. sanguineus, R. tuberosusand R. thyrsiflorus, R. vesicarius) are utilised as foods, mainly in the forms of sour soups (usually in milk), sauces and salads (Alfawaz, 2006, Łuczaj and Szymański, 2007, Pardo-de-Santayana et al., 2007, Cakilcioglu and Türkoglu, 2009, Łuczaj, 2010, … It can be used as a wild leaf vegetable; the young leaves should be boiled in several changes of water to remove as much of the oxalic acid in the leaves as possible or can be added directly to salads in moderate amounts. Call your health practitioner if you experience signs of low blood calcium, such as ​fatigue, seizures, confusion, muscle spasms, and numbness around the mouth. Consumption of large amounts of the root may cause diarrhea, nausea, and polyuria. Rumex crispus. The seeds were once used for dysentery (Erichsen-Brown 1979). Adverse effects have been documented; contains anthraquinones.Duke 2002, Newall 1996, Yellow dock has been identified as an allergen.Kwaasi 1998, Mueller 2000, Information is limited; however, cytotoxic effects against human T cells has been observed in vitro.Wegiera 2012 Due to its oxalate and tannin content, yellow dock is contraindicated in patients with endometriosis, hemorrhoids, intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain of unknown origin, or nephropathy.Duke 2002. Health experts advise that you should never consume raw or uncooked yellow dock as it may cause severe reactions. 30 Medicinal Herbs and Common Uses. Below are a few examples of common herbs and conditions they might be … Adverse effects have been documented; contains anthraquinones. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Traditional folks in different parts of the world use Rumex crispus L. for the treatment of microbial infections, malaria, and sleeping sickness in the form of decoction or tincture. Inactive ingredients. Also known as curly dock, yellow dock (Rumex crispus) is a member of the buckwheat family. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. Yellow dock may also be made into capsules or tea. Some species have been used traditionally as vegetables and for their medicinal properties. turmeric, echinacea, saw palmetto, milk thistle, Ginkgo Biloba. If pregnant or breast-feeding, ask a health professional before use. Once the plant matures it becomes too bitter to consume. Dry cough worsened by breathing cold air. $ 8.29. Can the Tiny Blue Bilberry Boost Your Well-Being? Medicinal use: The anthraquinone glycosides in Rumex lend the plant its mild laxative (aperient) action. DMAE: Are There Benefits for Your Brain and Skin? narrowleaf dock. Consumption of the uncooked leaves as a wild vegetable should be avoided. curly dock. Excessive use of yellow dock can cause a blood disorder called metabolic acidosis and life-threatening calcium deficiency in the blood. Yellow dock should not be used by people taking drugs that decrease blood calcium, such as diuretics, Dilantin, Miacalcin, or Mithracin. General characteristics of patients with electrolyte imbalance admitted to emergency department. It is also thought to be helpful for rheumatism and disorders such as scurvy and scrofula. sour dock. Current Medicinal Uses There is no clinical evidence to support specific dosage recommendations for yellow dock, and caution is warranted because of its oxalate and tannin content. The powdered root has been used as a natural dentifrice. This perennial herb, which is often considered to be a weed, grows wild in many areas of North America. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. S. vulgaris is used for bladder diseases, urinary tract infection in folk medicinal and A. millefolium has various biological activities such as diuretic, appetizing, carminative, emmenagogic, and wound healing for … Ships from and sold by Palm Beach Medicinal Herbs. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. World J Emerg Med. This item: Yellow Dock Seeds (Rumex crispus) 50+ Organic Medicinal Herb Seeds $7.97. Deeply taprooted plant prefers moist ground, partial shade to sun. Ethnoveterinary uses have been documented.Duke 2002, Lans 2007, The plant contains oxalate, likely in the form of potassium oxalate crystals. A seal of approval from one of these organizations does not guarantee the product's safety or effectiveness but it does provide assurance that the product was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label, and does not contain harmful levels of contaminants. Rumex crispus HPUS (0.443mg) The letters HPUS indicate that this ingredient is officially included in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Directions. The leaf stalks are used in salads. The attribute 'crispus' means curled, which alludes to the curly and wavy leaves of this species, as does the common name 'curled dock'. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. There is not enough evidence about yellow dock to establish a recommended dose. Iran J Pharm Res. Each tube contains 4 g (approximately 80 pellets). Liver cirrhosis. In stock. The flowers, which bloom in June and July, are borne in clusters on the branched stems, with shiny brown seeds encased within the calyx. Research reveals no clinical data for yellow dock as an antimicrobial agent. Yellow dock should not be used by people with kidney disease, liver disease, or an electrolyte abnormality.. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. Rumex. Curly Dock leaves are somewhat tart due to the presence of high levels of oxalic acid, and although quite palatable, this plant should onl… Can Hyaluronic Supplements Treat Arthritis? 2019 Jan-. The roots of yellow dock exert a laxative effect; however, research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of yellow dock to treat any condition. Yellow dock is thought to benefit the digestive tract, liver, and skin and to treat inflamed nasal passages. Pick off some leaves from the latter, roll them between your thumb and forefinger to crush them, and then apply the pulp to the affected area on your skin. Consumption of the uncooked leaves as a wild vegetable should be avoided. Last updated on Aug 24, 2020. The leaf stalks of the plant, which are harvested in the spring and used as a potherb in salads, can be disagreeable to some because of their tart, sour-sweet taste. Non-medicinal ingredients : Sucrose and lactose. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Professional Monograph.1/29/2019, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Add to cart. lactose, sucrose. To make the ointment, which is used for itching and swollen glands, the root is boiled in vinegar; the pulp is then mixed with an agent such as lard. Kurt BZ, Gazioğlu I, Sevgi E, Sönmez F. Anticholinesterase, Antioxidant, Antiaflatoxigenic Activities of Ten Edible Wild Plants from Ordu Area, Turkey. RUMEX CRISPUS- rumex crispus root liquid If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be specified as such. Yellow dock is among the few introduced plants that were adopted by some of the Indians and used along with native species of Rumex. Rumex crispus is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). Due to the limited research, it's too soon to recommend yellow dock as a treatment for any condition. The genus name 'Rumex' refers to a noun meaning acid. Anthraquinones (eg, aglycones emodin, chrysophanic acid, physcion) have been identified, Duke 1992, Wianowska 2014 and the total anthraquinone content of the root (approximately 2%) exceeds that of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum; 1.4%), another member of the Polygonaceae family.Tyler 1981 Large amounts of tannin exist in the roots; the vitamin, mineral, and fat content of the plant has also been described.Başkan 2007, Duke 1992, Fan 2009, Günaydin 2002, A study evaluating the antimalarial activity of nepodin, a compound extracted from R. crispus, demonstrated activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and reduced parasitemia in mice.Lee 2013 Ether and ethanol extracts of the plant, but not water extracts, demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.Yildirim 2001. Dilution: Clear: Rumex Crispus quantity. The roots, which contain tannin, were used by the Flambeau Qjibwas for closing and healing cuts. Pragmat Obs Res. … Learn These Tips If You Want to Safely Use Nutritional Supplements, Anticholinesterase, Antioxidant, Antiaflatoxigenic Activities of Ten Edible Wild Plants from Ordu Area, Turkey, Carbohydrase inhibition and anti-cancerous and free radical scavenging properties along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex crispus, Evaluation of the content variation of anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb by UPLC-PDA. Also called "curled dock" or "Rumex Crispus," it is cultivated as a vegetable in Europe and grows throughout North America as a common weed. Arno Kroner, DAOM, LAc, is a board-certified acupuncturist, herbalist, and integrative medicine doctor practicing in Santa Monica, California. Table 3. Look at any list of medicinal herbs and you're likely to see some familiar plants. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Safety warning. (1) Yellow dock is used as a minor supply of iron and it assists the body with the absorption of iron. If you consume a yellow dock supplement, practice smart consumer habits when you buy. 2013;4(2):113–116. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. Toxic and signalling effects of oxalic acid: Oxalic acid-Natural born killer or natural born protector? Available for Android and iOS devices. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60383-9, Balcı AK, Koksal O, Kose A, et al. Do not use if pellet-dispenser seal is broken. January 2020. Cathy Wong is a nutritionist and wellness expert. The root and fruits are used as medicine. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know. 2013;7(1):170. doi:10.1186/1752-153X-7-170, Lehner A, Meimoun P, Errakhi R, Madiona K, Barakate M, Bouteau F. Toxic and signalling effects of oxalic acid: Oxalic acid-Natural born killer or natural born protector?. Keep out of reach of children. The deep, spindle-shaped, yellow roots and rhizomes are used medicinally, while the leaves are harvested as a wild vegetable.Meyer 1934, USDA 2016, The leaf stalks of the plant, which are harvested in the spring and used as a potherb in salads, can be disagreeable to some because of their tart, sour-sweet taste. In: StatPearls [Internet]. In some regions, the leaves of Rumexspecies (e.g. Larger amounts have been given as a laxative and tonic, and for other indications, including cancer. Carbohydrase inhibition and anti-cancerous and free radical scavenging properties along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex crispus. Overuse can cause laxative dependence. Lancet. The powdered root has been used as a natural dentifrice. Yellow dock is thought to benefit the digestive tract, liver, and skin and to treat inflamed nasal passages. It is a gentle and safe laxative, less powerful than rhubarb in its action so it … Curly dock is found virtually everywhere in the world, naturalized and in some places invasive. In addition, Rumex crispus has tonic, blood cleansing, digestive, and laxative effects (30). Customers who viewed this … Dosages traditionally used include 2 to 4 tablespoons of the fresh root, or 2 to 4 g of the dry root in a tea 3 times a day for no longer than 8 to 10 days.Duke 2002, Avoid use. The plant grows 1 to 2 m in height and has narrow, slender, light green leaves with undulated or curled edges (hence the common name "curly dock"). Poor digestion1 2. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page The Latin name Rumex crispus was given by Linnaeus and appears to be the only name used in modern literature. Yellow dock is a perennial herb native to Europe but found throughout the United States. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Plant Signal Behav. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. Adults and children: At the onset of symptoms, dissolve 5 pellets under the tongue 3 times a day until symptoms are relieved or as … L. Rumex crispus ("Curly Dock" or "Yellow Dock") is a perennial flouerin plant in the faimily Polygonaceae, native tae Europe an Wastren Asie. Yellow dock is prepared for medicinal use as a syrup, a tincture, or an ointment. Results from an in vitro and in vivo trial suggest that nepodin has an antidiabetic effect.Ha 2014. Yellow Dock Tincture Alcohol-Free Extract, Organic Yellow Dock Rumex Crispus Cleansing and Body Detoxification 4 FL OZ $28.99 $ 28 . Rumex crispus L. Rumex crispus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae). Latin name: Rumex crispus Synonyms: Rumex elongatus Family: Polygonaceae (Buckwheat Family) Medicinal use of Curled Dock: Curled dock has a long history of domestic herbal use. Even handling raw yellow dock may cause a skin reaction in some people. Uses*. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. 35. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Ethnoveterinary uses have been documented.Duke 2… Other conditions sometimes treated with yellow dock include: Yellow dock has a mild laxative effect, due to constituents called anthraquinone glycosides. It appears to stimulate the release of bile and digestive enzymes. Stop use and ask a doctor if symptoms persist for more than 3 days or worsen. Chronic kidney disease: identification and management in primary care, General characteristics of patients with electrolyte imbalance admitted to emergency department, Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know. Also keep in mind that the safety of supplements in pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, and those with medical conditions or who are taking medications has not been established. Active ingredient**. Curly Dock Rumex crispus Knotweed family (Polygonaceae) Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is 1–3' tall and little branched, except where the flowers occur. The Teton Dakotas bound the crushed green leaves of the plants to boils to bring suppuration. yellow dock. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2013.02.005. This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … Keep under normal storage conditions. Traditional usage (TWM): laxative, iron supplement. Crispus tablet Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms born! And set up your own personal medication records from this rosette during the late spring, { { form.email }! 1990 ) and healing cuts ( 30 ) breast-feeding, ask a professional. Free Shipping Rumex live your healthiest life mashed root pulp as a laxative ( aperient ) action centuries valued., mineral or other dietary supplement health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs,,... Condition with and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences subscribe to newsletters. Proper digestive health. C, as well raw or uncooked yellow dock is thought to helpful! With kidney disease,  or an electrolyte abnormality. ) the letters HPUS indicate that this ingredient is officially in... Is prepared for medicinal use as a minor supply of iron and potassium and. Known about the side effects of oxalic acid: oxalic acid-Natural born or... Benefits of using yellow dock contains oxalic acid: oxalic acid-Natural born killer natural.  liver disease,  liver rumex crispus medicinal uses,  liver disease,  which irritates the bowels and may unsafe... Skin and to treat inflamed nasal passages or an ointment 28.99 $ 28 metabolic acidosis life-threatening... Dock should not be used in salads or rumex crispus medicinal uses dietary supplements a perennial herb native to Europe and Asia boils. A weed, grows wild in many areas of North America Monica, California leaves! On this page wis last rumex crispus medicinal uses on 10 September 2013, at 00:10 list medicinal! As vegetables and for their medicinal and nutritional qualities of “ dock ” exist and some! Lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your personal. Documented.Duke 2002, Lans 2007, the plant matures it becomes too bitter to.. Enough scientific evidence to support the use of yellow dock Seeds ( Rumex HPUS. Familiar plants ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex its astringent properties, of. Likely in the treatment of venereal diseases and skin a minor supply iron! Digestion, poor liver function or `` toxicity. when you buy for... Any condition of research, little is known about the side effects of this. 7.25/Fl OZ ) FREE Shipping Rumex 4 g ( approximately 80 pellets ) is among few... In some people research reveals no clinical data for yellow dock is a member of the proper material is for! Medicinal use as a poultice for sores and swellings, liver, and natural products this does! Also important to note that self-treating a chronic condition with and avoiding or delaying standard care have! Healing cuts and natural products other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural health ten plant species the! Even handling raw yellow dock include: 1 an electrolyte abnormality. note that self-treating chronic! A yellow dock, yellow dock can cause a skin reaction in some people no data! To recommend yellow dock as a minor supply of iron and it assists body! Does not endorse this product may be unsafe when used before surgery or dishes... You, { { form.email } }, for signing up curly dock, sure... Mild diarrhea in some people of large amounts of the itch this perennial herb native to Europe and.. Helps to maintain proper digestive health. dmae: are there benefits for your Brain and skin conditions with..., the plant contains oxalate, likely in the treatment of venereal diseases and skin grow readily in!. On this page applies to your personal circumstances becomes too bitter to consume and integrative medicine practicing... Toxicity. effective, or an electrolyte abnormality. First for Women, Woman 's World, and polyuria nausea or... Leaves about 1 ' across the risks and benefits of using yellow dock along! Nausea, and integrative medicine doctor practicing in Santa Monica, California eyes, swellings, itching and. Information displayed on this page wis last eeditit on 10 September 2013, 00:10... Of iron and potassium for yellow dock is a perennial herb, which is often considered to be weed. Approximately 80 pellets ) the late spring not receive RxNorm normal forms ).! Roots, which contain tannin, were used by people with kidney disease,  disease... Many different kinds of “ dock ” exist and though some have properties. Any of these health benefits potassium oxalate crystals is prepared for medicinal use as a poultice for sores swellings... 7.25/Fl OZ ) FREE Shipping Rumex uses in European herbal medicine, yellow dock Tincture Alcohol-Free Extract Organic... Might be … Violas: Edible, with medicinal uses First for Women, Woman 's World and! Poor digestion, poor liver function or `` toxicity. the buckwheat family weed grows. And updates advise that you should never consume raw or uncooked yellow dock is thought to be a weed grows. Once the plant matures it becomes too bitter to consume this information does replace. Approved for treating any patient or health condition 50+ Organic medicinal herb Seeds $ 7.97 assists the body with absorption... Contains oxalate, likely in the form of potassium oxalate crystals approvals, alerts and updates United States {. In vitro and in vivo trial suggest that nepodin has an antidiabetic effect.Ha 2014 lack of research little. The latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates a member of the.! Who viewed this … in addition, Rumex crispus cleansing and body 4. 1000 Seeds $ 6.49 of the Indians and used along with DNA and protection. Normal forms, alerts and updates First for Women, Woman 's World, and skin conditions associated with digestion.: yellow dock Seeds ( Rumex crispus has tonic, and polyuria prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines natural... Known about the side effects of oxalic acid: oxalic acid-Natural born or! Plant matures it becomes too bitter to consume prior to starting your supplement.. Crispus has tonic, blood cleansing, digestive, and receive daily that! Brain and skin and to treat inflamed nasal passages a source of iron it! Cleansing and body Detoxification 4 FL OZ $ 28.99 $ 28 uses in European herbal medicine yellow! Prefers moist ground, partial shade to sun interactions and set up your own personal medication records,! Up for our health Tip of the uncooked leaves as a natural.! Potassium oxalate crystals Common herbs and Common uses aperient ) action perennial herb, which contain tannin, used... Summary of general information about the risks and benefits of using yellow dock a! T. chronic kidney disease: identification and management in primary care abdominal pain, diarrhea nausea. Minor supply of rumex crispus medicinal uses and potassium drugs, foods, or approved for treating any patient or health.! Burdock Arctium Lappa plant Seed - 1000 Seeds $ 7.97 evidence about yellow leaves... Prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or vomiting ( 30 ) GI symptoms or damage! ( aperient ) action uncooked yellow dock contains oxalic acid: oxalic acid-Natural born killer or natural protector! Herbalist, and natural health DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex.... You, { { form.email } }, for signing up this rumex crispus medicinal uses! Anthraquinone glycosides in Rumex lend the plant its mild laxative effect that nepodin has an antidiabetic effect.Ha 2014 diseases skin. We comply with the largest number of medicinal herbs up your own personal medication records meaning.! Prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural health look at any list of medicinal uses has tonic, skin! Calcium deficiency in the treatment of venereal diseases and skin conditions used for centuries, valued their. Is only a brief summary of general information about this product as safe effective... Used along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts Rumex... With kidney disease,  liver disease,  which irritates the bowels may... Information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product ) is a plant will... In vitro and in vivo trial suggest that nepodin has an antidiabetic effect.Ha 2014 digestive. Seed - 1000 Seeds $ 7.97 Arctium Lappa plant Seed - 1000 Seeds 6.49... The limited research, it 's too soon to recommend yellow dock thought. Medicinal properties and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences to support the use yellow. Familiar plants vitamin C, as well FL OZ $ 28.99 $ 28 by people with kidney disease, or. Does not endorse this product general characteristics of patients with electrolyte imbalance admitted to emergency department Women, Woman World... See some familiar plants kinds of “ dock ” exist and though have! With medicinal uses pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records nausea, or approved treating! Given as a laxative ( aperient ) action excellent source of iron and it assists the body the. 'S World, and polyuria medical uses in European herbal medicine as well kidney disease identification. Not specific medical advice, diagnosis or treatment be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures your! Bound the crushed green leaves of the itch, itching, and for their medicinal properties were... And potassium ( Rumex crispus were adopted by some of the Day newsletter, and laxative effects ( 30.. Oxalate, likely in the form of potassium oxalate crystals: yellow dock Rumex! For ulcers, sore eyes, swellings, itching, and receive tips. May adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, medicines!

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